What types of performances are subject to limitations and exceptions?
Typically, a license is necessary for most public performances of various types of creative works, though the required license fee may be low or even waived for certain purposes. The criteria for determining whether a public performance requires a license varies depending on national laws. For instance, in some legal systems, an exception may be granted when performers do not charge a fee and the audience does not pay. Conversely, in other systems, any gathering beyond immediate family or a small group of close friends would be deemed a public performance, thereby requiring a license for the use of copyrighted or related works. However, exceptions may still be possible for public gatherings, such as for music performed during religious services or patriotic parades. Generally, licenses for public performances are obtained through collective management organizations (CMOs). In cases where performances are free but performers receive payment in the form of travel expenses, appearance fees, or non-monetary rewards, limitations and exceptions may still apply. It's worth noting that indirect payments may also necessitate a license for a public performance, such as the inclusion of the cost of music into food prices and service fees at certain restaurants.