How does the internationalcommunity coordinate IPprotection?
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is responsible for coordinating the IP laws of different countries and promoting the establishment of international legal frameworks for IP protection. The World Trade Organization (WTO) administers the TRIPS Agreement of 1994, which concerns the trade-related aspects of IP rights. International IP protection can be categorized into three main eras:
The Paris Union and Berne Union era, which began in the 1880s after the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works came into effect. These two conventions led to the formation of the Paris Union and the Berne Union, which administer the conventions. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) also played an active role in promoting the international protection of copyrights.
The WIPO era started in 1967 when contracting parties of the Paris Convention and the Berne Convention signed the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization. This led to the establishment of WIPO in 1970, which became one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations in 1974. Since then, over 20 international treaties have been concluded under WIPO's auspices, leading to more countries joining the Paris Convention and the Berne Convention and contributing to international IP protection.
The WTO era began during the Uruguay Round of negotiations in 1994, which concluded with the formation of the WTO. The negotiations also led to the adoption of the TRIPS Agreement, which is administered by the WTO. The TRIPS Agreement has had a significant impact on international IP protection, as WTO members must comply with its provisions, which include an effective monitoring and dispute settlement mechanism.