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How is IP administered aroundthe world?

Intellectual property (IP) is managed across the world through three different models. The first is the "four-in-one" model, in which a single administrative body manages patents, industrial designs, trademarks, and copyrights. Around 40% of the 192 members of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), including Canada, Russia, and the United Kingdom, follow this model. For instance, the UK's Intellectual Property Office is responsible for patents, trademarks, and industrial design registration and copyright management nationwide. The second model is the "three-in-one" model, where patents, industrial designs, and trademarks are managed by one agency, while copyright is separately handled. About half of WIPO members, including France, Germany, Japan, and the United States, use this approach. In the US, for example, the Patent and Trademark Office of the Department of Commerce manages patents, industrial designs, and trademarks, while copyright is the responsibility of the Copyright Office in the Library of Congress. The third model is the "separate administration" model, in which patents, trademarks, and copyrights are handled by different agencies. This approach is used by a small number of countries, such as Egypt, Greece, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia.

In China, until 2018, patents, trademarks, and copyrights were managed by three separate entities: the State Intellectual Property Office, the Trademark Office of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, and the National Copyright Administration of the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film, and Television. However, in March 2018, the State Intellectual Property Office was reorganized to include patents and trademarks, while the National Copyright Administration continued to oversee copyright.

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