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How is ownership of inventions by employees determined?

During the time of Thomas Edison, inventors used their own resources to create their inventions. However, with the development of science, technology, and the economy, most inventions require significant physical and technical resources, as well as collaboration between many individuals. Therefore, innovation projects are now mainly sponsored by institutions such as companies, research institutions, universities, and governments, with their staff performing the actual work. As a result, determining ownership of resulting inventions is critical.

Different countries have varying patent laws that determine who has the right to an invention made by an employee. In some countries, the employer is granted direct patent rights, while in others, the employee is given patent rights that can be transferred to another party through an agreement or contract. Despite legislative differences, the end result is usually the same: the employer is considered the owner of the invention. To ensure fairness, the employer must provide reasonable compensation to the inventor after acquiring patent rights, and the actual creator of the invention must be listed as the inventor in patent documents, even if they do not maintain rights to the invention itself.


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