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How is the ownership ofcopyright determined?

Copyright is a fundamental principle aimed at safeguarding human creations, and it is generally accepted that authors are the natural owners of copyright. Most national copyright systems restrict authorship to human beings, but some legal entities such as corporations can be authors or creators in specific scenarios, while legal entities like broadcasters may hold related rights. However, national legal systems generally do not allow animals or robots to own copyright. International treaties and national laws also provide copyright attribution for works created under special circumstances. In cases of joint authorship, for example, both authors are considered copyright owners. In some co-authored works, elements of the work can be divided, such as songs with separate lyrics and melodies. In such cases, the composer and lyricist each have copyright protection in their respective parts of the song. Some countries have specific provisions for attributing copyright in commissioned works, works made for hire, audiovisual or cinematographic works, and derivative works, which are discussed in detail below.


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