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What are monopoly licensing, exclusive licensing and general licensing of trademarks?

There are three types of trademark licenses: monopoly license, exclusive license, and ordinary license. With a monopoly license, the trademark owner authorizes only one licensee to use the trademark, and the trademark owner is not allowed to use the trademark in a specific territory for a certain period of time. An exclusive license authorizes the licensee to use the trademark exclusively, but the trademark owner can still use it as well. An ordinary license authorizes the licensee to use the trademark while the trademark owner reserves the right to use the trademark and authorize other licensees to use it.

Among the three types, the monopoly license grants the broadest authority to the licensee. When trademark infringement occurs, the licensee can take legal action on its own, as it is the sole user. With an exclusive license, the licensee enjoys fewer rights and can only file a lawsuit jointly with the trademark owner. However, if the trademark owner does not take legal action, the licensee can file a lawsuit alone. As for a general license, the licensee cannot sue alone unless they have special authorization from the trademark owner since they are only one of the licensees.

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