What international conventions protect copyright and related rights?
The Berne Convention, adopted in 1886, safeguards the rights of authors of literary, artistic and scientific works. It has undergone updates over the years, and many WIPO member states are now part of the 1971 Act.
In 1961, the Rome Convention was introduced to protect the rights of performers, producers of phonograms (i.e. sound recordings) and broadcasting organizations. Similarly, the Phonograms Convention, also known as the Convention on Recordings, was implemented in 1971 to safeguard the rights of producers of phonograms.
The WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) was enacted in 1996 to update the protection of the rights of authors of literary, artistic and scientific works for the digital era, particularly their communication rights via the Internet. Meanwhile, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) updated the protection of the rights of performers and producers of phonograms for the digital era, particularly their communication rights to the public via the Internet.
In 2012, the Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances was signed, aiming to enhance the protection of performers in audiovisual works in the digital era. However, it is yet to come into force.
Lastly, the Marrakesh Treaty was established to encourage the adoption and harmonization of exceptions and limitations to enable the creation and cross-border transfer of works in accessible formats for individuals who are blind, visually impaired or otherwise print-disabled.