What should be kept in mind when an author creates a work?
Copyright owners have exclusive rights to their work and are prohibited from infringing on other people's copyrights when creating their own work. There are two ways authors can create a work - either by creating it without relying on other works, or by adapting another person's work. In the former case, the author is not allowed to copy other people's work, including paraphrasing it or replacing words with synonyms. In the latter case, the subsequent work must be subject to prior copyrights, and permission must be obtained from all prior rights holders.
When it comes to patents and copyright-protected works, subsequent works can be formed by improving upon them, but they must still be subject to prior rights. Altering a registered trademark to produce a new mark is not allowed, as it can cause confusion among consumers. In countries where a trademark is examined substantively, obtaining trademark rights means that there are no prior similar marks. However, trademark owners may still face threats from other fields such as prior copyrights, name rights, and trade name rights.